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jueves, 24 de marzo de 2011

La importancia de tener códigos civiles y de comercio

Ya sospechábamos que los Derechos europeo-continentales eran más eficientes, en lo que al Derecho contractual se refiere, que los Derechos anglo-sajones (que se lo pregunten a los abogados que redactan contratos cuando utilizan formularios americanos). Y que una ventaja importante se encuentra en que los costes de celebrar un contrato (de redactarlo) son menores si hay libertad de forma y un Derecho supletorio dispositivo de cierta calidad que haya sido codificado y respecto del cual se haya desarrollado doctrina jurisprudencial. En este artículo se hace un estudio econométrico de la cuestión y esta es la conclusión que alcanzan (otra refutación de los resultados de la doctrina sobre legal origins):
Controlling for time and country fixed effects, we have found that codified default rules do favor economic performance across the cleavages of legal origins. But our analysis also reveals that the higher the number of economically important contract types codified with such default rules, the greater the economic effect. This is reflected in the evolution of per capita GDP of the six civil law countries of our sample as compared to the two common law countries. While all of the former have codified all 10 of the economically most important contract types selected, the latter have offered their business communities codified default rules for only 1 (UK) and 3 (US) contract types respectively. We submit that the 6 civil law countries, which have overtaken the per capita GDP growth of the UK or have emerged on a sustained path of convergence without enjoying the advantages of a financial center, owe part of that performance to their much higher number of codified default rules easing the conclusion of enforceable contracts. Moreover, Switzerland’s per capita GDP exceeding that of the UK for 8 decades and that of the US for 3 decades in the inter-war and post-World War II periods invalidates (the)… assumption that civil law is not a favorable environment for the supply of capital to financial markets. We consider these two conclusions as important qualifications of legal origins theory from the point of view of contract theory. While qualifying legal origins theory, our results strongly confirm institutional economics in its core of contract theory

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