Una observación: ¿si fuera un país plenamente desarrollado el que tuviera frontera con Corea del Norte (Corea del Sur no vale porque esa frontera debe de ser mucho menos permeable que la frontera chino-coreana) las cosas serían distintas?In sum, investment is done by larger firms, possibly with external finance although this finding is not robust. Potential investors who believe that they can make direct appeals to North Korean officials to resolve disputes are more likely to commit. Belief in the ability of Chinese authorities to come to the support of firms facing disputes has no effect on investment. Although China-North Korea trade is often treated as highly political, the firms that have invested appear to recognize that they are on their own. They have possibly learned that the infrastructure is even worse than expected and the need to engage in bribery even greater. But they appear to have accepted the latter as it is an integral part of the operating environment, believing that the benefits of bribery in terms of securing political connections and support
outweigh its financial costs.